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Sand maker is also known as impact crusher or sand making machine.
Rotate speed:200-530 r/min
Applied material: pebble, calcite, granite, quartz, concrete, dolomite, bluestone, iron ore, limestone, construction waste, etc.
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The cement manufacturing process involves several key steps, including preparing the raw materials, grinding the materials together, heating the newly formed clinker in a kiln, and finishing the cement with fine grinding. Some of the main ingredients used to make cement include limestone, clay, shale, iron, and sand. Different manufacturing techniques will use either wet or dry grinding, but each cement manufacturing process will culminate in heating and fine grinding to finish the product
Preparing the raw materials is often the first step in the cement manufacturing process, and involves mining the limestone or obtaining safe industrial waste products. Drilling, blasting, and crushing machinery convert mined limestone to fragments about 0.39 inches (about 1 cm) in diameter, after which it is stored until needed. Crushing practices will sometimes be used on the other materials as well, especially if they contain large or irregularly sized fragments
Grinding is the next step in the cement manufacturing process, and it can occur in either wet or dry forms. Wet grinding involves combining all of the materials in a mill with water and grinding it into slurry. In contrast, dry grinding processes combine and grind the materials without water, creating a substance known as kiln feed. Both types of grinding will yield material that contains an average particle size of about 75 micrometers. After each process, the materials are further mixed for proper homogeneity and placed in storing units
Heating occurs next, and it takes place in a rotary kiln that is fired at high temperatures. The kiln heats the clinker, the name for the dried material formed after the grinding process, until it reaches upwards of 2732°F (about 1500°C). Afterward, the material is sent to a clinker cooler where the temperature lowers to a reasonable level, at which point the material can be stored once again
For the bulk and continuous manufacturing and production of Portland Cement following mineral materials are used: calcareous materials (limestone or chalk), argillaceous material (shale or clay), blast furnace slag, silica sand, iron ore, and gypsum as raw material. Cement factories are established where these raw materials are available in plenty and facilities of long-distance transportation of raw and finished materials.
The manufacture of Portland cement is a complex process and done in the following steps: grinding the raw materials, mixing them in certain proportions depending upon their purity and composition, and burning them to sintering in a kiln at a temperature of about 1350 to 1500 ⁰C. During this process, these materials partially fuse to form nodular shaped clinker by broking of chemical bonds of the raw materials and recombined into new compounds.
With a little change in the above process, we have the semi-dry process also where the raw materials are ground dry and then mixed with about 10-14 percent of water and further burnt to clickering temperature
In the old age, because of the possibility of more accurate control in the mixing of raw materials, the wet process is popular. The techniques of the intimate mixing of raw materials in powder form were not available then.
The dry process requires much less fuel as the materials are already in a dry state, whereas in the wet process the slurry contains about 35 to 50 percent water. In the wet process, the drying process is fuel consumption. Here, below you can read both “wet” and “Dry” process in detail
In the wet process, first of all, the newly quarried limestone is crushed into smaller pieces. Then in the ball or tube mill, it is mixed with clay or shale with water to form a slurry. The slurry is a liquid of creamy consistency with a water content of about 35 to 50 percent, wherein particles, crushed to the fineness are held in suspension
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The history of cement goes back into Roman Empire. The modern day cement. That is Portland cement was first produced by a British stone mason, Joseph Aspdin in 1824, who cooked cement in his kitchen. He heated a mixture of limestone and clay powder in his kitchen, and grind the mixture into powder creating cement, that hardens when mixed with water. The name Portland was given by the inventor as it resembles a stone quarried on the Isle of Portland
The both calcareous and argillaceous raw materials are firstly crushed in the gyratory crushers to get 2-5cm size pieces separately. The crushed materials are again grinded to get fine particles into ball or tube mill
Each finely grinded material is stored in hopper after screening. Now these powdered minerals are mixed in required proportion to get dry raw mix which is then stored in silos and kept ready to be sent into rotary kiln. Now the raw materials are mixed in specific proportions so that the average composition of the final product is maintained properly
The grinding process can be done in ball or tube mill or even both. Then the slurry is led into collecting basin where composition can be adjusted. The slurry contains around 38-40% water that is stored in storage tanks and kept ready for the rotary kiln
The burning process is carried out in the rotary kiln while the raw materials are rotated at 1-2rpm at its longitudinal axis. The rotary kiln is made up of steel tubes having the diameter of 2.5-3.0 meter and the length differs from 90-120meter. The inner side of the kiln is lined with refractory bricks
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