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flotation cell densities

Flotation Cell

Flotation Cell

The flotation machine is driven by V-belt drive motor rotating impeller to create negative pressure by centrifugal vacuum.

Processing ability:0.2-16m³/min

Impeller rotation speed:191-400r/min

Applied materials:non-ferrous metals, ferrous metals, precious metals, non-metallic mineral, chemical raw materials, etc.

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flotation process - an overview | sciencedirect topics

The flotation process depends on several design and operational variables. We consider a superstructure that includes the following three flotation stages: the rougher, which processes the feed; the cleaner, which generates the final concentrate; and the scavenger, which generates the final tailing, as shown in Fig. (1). This is a simple superstructure but is used here as an example

The objective is to maximize the total income with respect to the operation conditions and process design. The decision variables to be optimized are divided into design and operating variables. The design variables include equipment dimensions, such as the cell volume and total number of cells for each stage. The operating variables correspond to operating times for each cell at each stage and the directions of tails and concentrate streams. In stochastic problems, the operating variables (second level variables) are able to adapt to each scenario to increase the total income. Moreover, the design variables (first level) are the same for all scenarios

In flotation process, the gas or air bubbles are introduced through culture suspension, and the microalgal biomass get attached to gaseous molecules and accumulated on the liquid surface. This method is particularly effective for thin microalgae suspension that could be simply gravity thickening [38]. The basic variations of this process are dispersed air flotation, dissolved air flotation, electroflotation, and ozone flotation [55,56,57]. The ratio of gaseous molecules to microalgae is one of the most important factors affecting the performance of the flotation efficiency. Several researchers have confirmed that ozone flotation was more effective than other methods [58,59]. Also, ozoflotation could improve lipid recovery yields and modify fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles. The ozone flotation could increase the cell flotation efficiency by modifying the cell wall surface and/or releasing the active agents from microalgal cells [60]. Moreover, the ozone flotation can also improve the quality of water by lowering the turbidity and organic contents of the effluent [58]. Flotation separation efficiency relates to bubble size [61]. Smaller size of gas bubbles has lower rise velocity and higher surface area to volume ratio. This enables their longer retention time and better attachment efficiency with the microalgae cells and leads to the increasing in harvesting efficiency by floatation [64]. Thus, one of the most efficient ways of achieving maximum attachment is by generating as many small bubbles as possible [61,62,63]. Combinations of flocculation with flotation have been also used to increase the harvesting efficiency [64,65,66]

flotation process - an overview | sciencedirect topics

The froth flotation process is more than a century old and was developed over a long period of time [8]. It takes advantage of the surface chemistry of fine particles—if one particle’s surface is hydrophobic and another is hydrophilic, upon generation of air bubbles, the hydrophobic particles tend to attach to the air bubbles and float, allowing for a separation between particles in the froth and those in the main body of the liquid

Typically three different types of chemicals are used in the froth flotation process: collector, frother, and modifier. First, the collector is added to the iron ore slurry to selectively coat the iron oxide particles, making the surface hydrophobic. The slurry then goes to a flotation cell, where air bubbles are generated using an impeller and aerator (Figure 1.2.4). At this step, the frother (for example, fuel oil) is added to the ore slurry to form stable froth and air bubbles. Iron oxide particles stick to the air bubbles and float. Floated and concentrated iron ore slurry is then skimmed from the surface of the bath, and water is removed using a filter press. If the desired iron content is not achieved, the process is repeated. A modifier is added in some cases to enhance the performance of the collector. Frother is the most important chemical that must always be present. Without the generation of stable air bubbles, hydrophobic particles will not have anything to attach to and will not separate from the bulk solution

interpretation of flotation data for the design of …

Flotation processes are based on the different surface wettability properties of materials (Wang et al., 2015). In principle, flotation works very similarly to a sink and float process, where the density characteristics of the materials, with respect to that of the medium where they are placed are at the base of the separation. Sometimes a centrifugal field is applied to enhance separation. Flotation works in a different way in the sense that in a liquid medium, usually water, a “carrier” is introduced, air bubbles, responsible to float hydrophobic particles that adhere to the bubbles with respect to the hydrophilic ones that sink. According to surface plastic characteristics, this technique can be profitably applied, in principle, to separate waste polymers (Fraunholcz, 2004). To enhance or reduce plastic surface characteristics (i.e., hydrophobic or hydrophilic) appropriate collectors, conditioners (Singh, 1998; Shen et al., 2002), and flotation cell operative conditions (i.e., air flow rate, agitation) can be utilized. Usually plastic flotation is carried out in alkaline conditions (Takoungsakdakun and Pongstabodee, 2007). Once floated, hydrophobic polymers are recovered as well as the sunk ones (i.e., hydrophilic) at the bottom of the cell. This technique, even if it is well-known (Buchan and Yarar, 1995) and in principle quite powerful is not widely used mainly for three reasons: (1) it is a wet technique, this means that water has to be recovered and processed before reutilization, due to the presence of the reagents and contaminants, (2) polymer surface status (i.e., presence of dirtiness/pollutants and/or of physical/chemical alteration) can strongly affect floatability, and (3) large variation of waste plastics feed in terms of composition. Flotation allows to separate PS, PVC, PET, PC, and mixed polyolefins (MPO)

The flotation process depends on several design and operational variables. We consider a superstructure that includes the following three flotation stages: the rougher, which processes the feed; the cleaner, which generates the final concentrate; and the scavenger, which generates the final tailing, as shown in Fig. (1). This is a simple superstructure but is used here as an example

The objective is to maximize the total income with respect to the operation conditions and process design. The decision variables to be optimized are divided into design and operating variables. The design variables include equipment dimensions, such as the cell volume and total number of cells for each stage. The operating variables correspond to operating times for each cell at each stage and the directions of tails and concentrate streams. In stochastic problems, the operating variables (second level variables) are able to adapt to each scenario to increase the total income. Moreover, the design variables (first level) are the same for all scenarios

In flotation process, the gas or air bubbles are introduced through culture suspension, and the microalgal biomass get attached to gaseous molecules and accumulated on the liquid surface. This method is particularly effective for thin microalgae suspension that could be simply gravity thickening [38]. The basic variations of this process are dispersed air flotation, dissolved air flotation, electroflotation, and ozone flotation [55,56,57]. The ratio of gaseous molecules to microalgae is one of the most important factors affecting the performance of the flotation efficiency. Several researchers have confirmed that ozone flotation was more effective than other methods [58,59]. Also, ozoflotation could improve lipid recovery yields and modify fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles. The ozone flotation could increase the cell flotation efficiency by modifying the cell wall surface and/or releasing the active agents from microalgal cells [60]. Moreover, the ozone flotation can also improve the quality of water by lowering the turbidity and organic contents of the effluent [58]. Flotation separation efficiency relates to bubble size [61]. Smaller size of gas bubbles has lower rise velocity and higher surface area to volume ratio. This enables their longer retention time and better attachment efficiency with the microalgae cells and leads to the increasing in harvesting efficiency by floatation [64]. Thus, one of the most efficient ways of achieving maximum attachment is by generating as many small bubbles as possible [61,62,63]. Combinations of flocculation with flotation have been also used to increase the harvesting efficiency [64,65,66]

interpretation of flotation data for the design of …

In using these equations, however, one must use parameters with consistent units.(1-3)E=(Ci-Co)/Ci(1-4)E=K/(Qw-K')(1-5)E=(6πKpr2hqg)/(qwdb)whereE = efficiency per cellCi = inlet oil concentrationCo = outlet oil concentrationQw = liquid flow rate, BPDKp = mass transfer coefficientr = radius of mixing zoneh = height of mixing zoneqg = gas flow rateqw = liquid flow through the mixing zonedb = diameter of gas bubble

The froth flotation process is more than a century old and was developed over a long period of time [8]. It takes advantage of the surface chemistry of fine particles—if one particle’s surface is hydrophobic and another is hydrophilic, upon generation of air bubbles, the hydrophobic particles tend to attach to the air bubbles and float, allowing for a separation between particles in the froth and those in the main body of the liquid

1froth flotation– fundamental principles

Flotation processes are based on the different surface wettability properties of materials (Wang et al., 2015). In principle, flotation works very similarly to a sink and float process, where the density characteristics of the materials, with respect to that of the medium where they are placed are at the base of the separation. Sometimes a centrifugal field is applied to enhance separation. Flotation works in a different way in the sense that in a liquid medium, usually water, a “carrier” is introduced, air bubbles, responsible to float hydrophobic particles that adhere to the bubbles with respect to the hydrophilic ones that sink. According to surface plastic characteristics, this technique can be profitably applied, in principle, to separate waste polymers (Fraunholcz, 2004). To enhance or reduce plastic surface characteristics (i.e., hydrophobic or hydrophilic) appropriate collectors, conditioners (Singh, 1998; Shen et al., 2002), and flotation cell operative conditions (i.e., air flow rate, agitation) can be utilized. Usually plastic flotation is carried out in alkaline conditions (Takoungsakdakun and Pongstabodee, 2007). Once floated, hydrophobic polymers are recovered as well as the sunk ones (i.e., hydrophilic) at the bottom of the cell. This technique, even if it is well-known (Buchan and Yarar, 1995) and in principle quite powerful is not widely used mainly for three reasons: (1) it is a wet technique, this means that water has to be recovered and processed before reutilization, due to the presence of the reagents and contaminants, (2) polymer surface status (i.e., presence of dirtiness/pollutants and/or of physical/chemical alteration) can strongly affect floatability, and (3) large variation of waste plastics feed in terms of composition. Flotation allows to separate PS, PVC, PET, PC, and mixed polyolefins (MPO)

The flotation process depends on several design and operational variables. We consider a superstructure that includes the following three flotation stages: the rougher, which processes the feed; the cleaner, which generates the final concentrate; and the scavenger, which generates the final tailing, as shown in Fig. (1). This is a simple superstructure but is used here as an example

The objective is to maximize the total income with respect to the operation conditions and process design. The decision variables to be optimized are divided into design and operating variables. The design variables include equipment dimensions, such as the cell volume and total number of cells for each stage. The operating variables correspond to operating times for each cell at each stage and the directions of tails and concentrate streams. In stochastic problems, the operating variables (second level variables) are able to adapt to each scenario to increase the total income. Moreover, the design variables (first level) are the same for all scenarios

In flotation process, the gas or air bubbles are introduced through culture suspension, and the microalgal biomass get attached to gaseous molecules and accumulated on the liquid surface. This method is particularly effective for thin microalgae suspension that could be simply gravity thickening [38]. The basic variations of this process are dispersed air flotation, dissolved air flotation, electroflotation, and ozone flotation [55,56,57]. The ratio of gaseous molecules to microalgae is one of the most important factors affecting the performance of the flotation efficiency. Several researchers have confirmed that ozone flotation was more effective than other methods [58,59]. Also, ozoflotation could improve lipid recovery yields and modify fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles. The ozone flotation could increase the cell flotation efficiency by modifying the cell wall surface and/or releasing the active agents from microalgal cells [60]. Moreover, the ozone flotation can also improve the quality of water by lowering the turbidity and organic contents of the effluent [58]. Flotation separation efficiency relates to bubble size [61]. Smaller size of gas bubbles has lower rise velocity and higher surface area to volume ratio. This enables their longer retention time and better attachment efficiency with the microalgae cells and leads to the increasing in harvesting efficiency by floatation [64]. Thus, one of the most efficient ways of achieving maximum attachment is by generating as many small bubbles as possible [61,62,63]. Combinations of flocculation with flotation have been also used to increase the harvesting efficiency [64,65,66]

1froth flotation– fundamental principles

In using these equations, however, one must use parameters with consistent units.(1-3)E=(Ci-Co)/Ci(1-4)E=K/(Qw-K')(1-5)E=(6πKpr2hqg)/(qwdb)whereE = efficiency per cellCi = inlet oil concentrationCo = outlet oil concentrationQw = liquid flow rate, BPDKp = mass transfer coefficientr = radius of mixing zoneh = height of mixing zoneqg = gas flow rateqw = liquid flow through the mixing zonedb = diameter of gas bubble

The froth flotation process is more than a century old and was developed over a long period of time [8]. It takes advantage of the surface chemistry of fine particles—if one particle’s surface is hydrophobic and another is hydrophilic, upon generation of air bubbles, the hydrophobic particles tend to attach to the air bubbles and float, allowing for a separation between particles in the froth and those in the main body of the liquid

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