Best Mining Solutions For Everyone, Get a Free Quote.

Zhengzhou, China

[email protected]

Blogs

  1. Home
  2. Crushing Plant
  3. efficient small carbon black high efficiency concentrator in calabar

efficient small carbon black high efficiency concentrator in calabar

Crushing Plant

Crushing Plant

The combination crusher is a new generation high efficiency crushing machine designed and researched by integrating the domestic and foreign crusher technology with the same kinds and optimizing the main technical parameters.
[email protected]
Sent Message Chat Online

We Provide You The Highest Quality Mining Machine That Meets Your Expectation.

Need A High Quality Mining Machine For Your Project?

Contact With Us

You May Also Like

applications and challenges of thermoplasmonics | nature

Over the past two decades, there has been a growing interest in the use of plasmonic nanoparticles as sources of heat remotely controlled by light, giving rise to the field of thermoplasmonics. The ability to release heat on the nanoscale has already impacted a broad range of research activities, from biomedicine to imaging and catalysis. Thermoplasmonics is now entering an important phase: some applications have engaged in an industrial stage, while others, originally full of promise, experience some difficulty in reaching their potential. Meanwhile, innovative fundamental areas of research are being developed. In this Review, we scrutinize the current research landscape in thermoplasmonics, with a specific focus on its applications and main challenges in many different fields of science, including nanomedicine, cell biology, photothermal and hot-electron chemistry, solar light harvesting, soft matter and nanofluidics

Hüttmann, G. & Birngruber, R. On the possibility of high-precision photothermal microeffects and the measurement of fast thermal denaturation of proteins. IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 954–962 (1999)

Ali, M. R. K., Ibrahim, I. M., Ali, H. R., Selim, S. A. & El-Sayed, M. A. Treatment of natural mammary gland tumors in canines and felines using gold nanorods-assisted plasmonic photothermal therapy to induce tumor apoptosis. Int. J. Nanomed. 11, 4849–4863 (2016)

applications and challenges of thermoplasmonics | nature

Vankayala, R., Huang, Y. K., Kalluru, P., Chiang, C. S. & Hwang, K. C. First demonstration of gold nanorods-mediated photodynamic therapeutic destruction of tumors via near infra-red light activation. Small 10, 1612–1622 (2014)

Paithankar, D. Y. et al. Acne treatment based on selective photothermolysis of sebaceous follicles with topically delivered gold plasmonic particles. Adv. Mater. TechConnect Briefs 2016 3, 177–179 (2016)

pathways and challenges for efficient solar-thermal

Solar-thermal desalination (STD) is a potentially low-cost, sustainable approach for providing high-quality fresh water in the absence of water and energy infrastructures. Despite recent efforts to advance STD by improving heat-absorbing materials and system designs, the best strategies for maximizing STD performance remain uncertain. To address this problem, we identify three major steps in distillation-based STD: (i) light-to-heat energy conversion, (ii) thermal vapor generation, and (iii) conversion of vapor to water via condensation. Using specific water productivity as a quantitative metric for energy efficiency, we show that efficient recovery of the latent heat of condensation is critical for STD performance enhancement, because solar vapor generation has already been pushed toward its performance limit. We also demonstrate that STD cannot compete with photovoltaic reverse osmosis desalination in energy efficiency. We conclude by emphasizing the importance of factors other than energy efficiency, including cost, ease of maintenance, and applicability to hypersaline waters

The growing demand for desalination to augment water supply coupled with concerns about the environmental impacts of powering desalination using fossil fuel have spurred substantial interest in developing desalination systems that are powered by renewable energy (1, 2). Tremendous interest in developing integrated solar-thermal desalination (STD) systems has emerged in the past few years, especially systems enabled by solar-driven interfacial evaporation (3, 4). In these systems, there are three steps for the production of fresh water: (i) conversion of solar radiation to thermal energy (heat), (ii) utilization of the generated heat for vapor production, and (iii) condensation of the vapor to water. Most research effort in this area has been devoted to the development of high-performance materials for photothermal conversion (5–11), while system design has received growing attention (12–15)

Despite myriad efforts to develop novel materials and configurations for STD, a knowledge gap still exists in quantitative understanding of how these innovations can translate to the overall enhancement of STD performance. In particular, the vast majority of reported studies focused on vapor generation under solar radiation (5–7, 9, 16–19). While vapor generation is a critical component of STD, high-performance STD cannot be achieved without efficient condensation and effective recovery of the latent heat of condensation (20–22). Therefore, a systematic framework is needed to quantify the significance of different strategies for enhancing the efficiency of STD systems and to identify the most effective strategies to achieve high-performance STD. Such a framework is also necessary for performance evaluation of different STD systems with various materials, designs, and experimental conditions

In this review, we critically discuss the fundamental principles of designing an efficient STD system from both material development and system design perspectives. We start by introducing a general framework for analyzing the performance of STD systems. Following this framework, we discuss the role of emerging materials in enhancing heat generation from solar radiation. We then examine different thermal management strategies for maximizing vapor generation using the heat converted from solar radiation. We also elucidate the importance of latent heat recovery and demonstrate the potential of markedly enhancing the efficiency of STD systems by implementing measures for latent heat recovery. The limitations of energy efficiency for STD systems are also discussed by comparing STD to the energy efficiency of solar desalination based on photovoltaic (PV)–driven reverse osmosis (RO). Last, we summarize the effective pathways for enhancing the efficiency of STD systems and highlight practical and economic aspects of designing STD systems

pathways and challenges for efficient solar-thermal

The most relevant metric for evaluating the performance of STD systems is the specific water productivity (SWP), defined as the volume of water produced per solar radiation area per time. This metric represents how efficiently the energy available from solar radiation is used to desalinate a given source water. SWP has been commonly reported as the key performance metric in numerous studies on STD (5, 6, 13, 19–21, 23–27). In most studies, the solar irradiance was set to one sun for practical relevance (12, 13, 20, 24–26), although much higher solar irradiance has been used in some studies (5, 6, 19, 27)

SWP can be expressed as (see the Supplementary Materials for derivation)SWP=ELαηtGORSWP=ELαηtGOR(1)where E is the solar irradiance (kW m−2), L is the latent heat of evaporation (kWh liter−1), α is the solar absorptivity of the STD system (dimensionless) that quantifies the percentage of solar irradiance converted to heat, ηt is the thermal efficiency (dimensionless) that quantifies the percentage of generated heat used for evaporation, and GOR is the gained output ratio. GOR, defined as the kilogram of distilled water produced per kilogram of vapor produced, quantifies the degree to which the latent heat of condensation is reused for further distillation (28, 29). Because the thermal energy required to generate 1 kilogram of vapor is constant, GOR is a measure of energy efficiency of thermal distillation. The GOR of a well-designed thermal distillation system should be notably greater than unity

air pollution control technology fact sheet

Solar-thermal desalination (STD) is a potentially low-cost, sustainable approach for providing high-quality fresh water in the absence of water and energy infrastructures. Despite recent efforts to advance STD by improving heat-absorbing materials and system designs, the best strategies for maximizing STD performance remain uncertain. To address this problem, we identify three major steps in distillation-based STD: (i) light-to-heat energy conversion, (ii) thermal vapor generation, and (iii) conversion of vapor to water via condensation. Using specific water productivity as a quantitative metric for energy efficiency, we show that efficient recovery of the latent heat of condensation is critical for STD performance enhancement, because solar vapor generation has already been pushed toward its performance limit. We also demonstrate that STD cannot compete with photovoltaic reverse osmosis desalination in energy efficiency. We conclude by emphasizing the importance of factors other than energy efficiency, including cost, ease of maintenance, and applicability to hypersaline waters

The growing demand for desalination to augment water supply coupled with concerns about the environmental impacts of powering desalination using fossil fuel have spurred substantial interest in developing desalination systems that are powered by renewable energy (1, 2). Tremendous interest in developing integrated solar-thermal desalination (STD) systems has emerged in the past few years, especially systems enabled by solar-driven interfacial evaporation (3, 4). In these systems, there are three steps for the production of fresh water: (i) conversion of solar radiation to thermal energy (heat), (ii) utilization of the generated heat for vapor production, and (iii) condensation of the vapor to water. Most research effort in this area has been devoted to the development of high-performance materials for photothermal conversion (5–11), while system design has received growing attention (12–15)

Despite myriad efforts to develop novel materials and configurations for STD, a knowledge gap still exists in quantitative understanding of how these innovations can translate to the overall enhancement of STD performance. In particular, the vast majority of reported studies focused on vapor generation under solar radiation (5–7, 9, 16–19). While vapor generation is a critical component of STD, high-performance STD cannot be achieved without efficient condensation and effective recovery of the latent heat of condensation (20–22). Therefore, a systematic framework is needed to quantify the significance of different strategies for enhancing the efficiency of STD systems and to identify the most effective strategies to achieve high-performance STD. Such a framework is also necessary for performance evaluation of different STD systems with various materials, designs, and experimental conditions

In this review, we critically discuss the fundamental principles of designing an efficient STD system from both material development and system design perspectives. We start by introducing a general framework for analyzing the performance of STD systems. Following this framework, we discuss the role of emerging materials in enhancing heat generation from solar radiation. We then examine different thermal management strategies for maximizing vapor generation using the heat converted from solar radiation. We also elucidate the importance of latent heat recovery and demonstrate the potential of markedly enhancing the efficiency of STD systems by implementing measures for latent heat recovery. The limitations of energy efficiency for STD systems are also discussed by comparing STD to the energy efficiency of solar desalination based on photovoltaic (PV)–driven reverse osmosis (RO). Last, we summarize the effective pathways for enhancing the efficiency of STD systems and highlight practical and economic aspects of designing STD systems

air pollution control technology fact sheet

The most relevant metric for evaluating the performance of STD systems is the specific water productivity (SWP), defined as the volume of water produced per solar radiation area per time. This metric represents how efficiently the energy available from solar radiation is used to desalinate a given source water. SWP has been commonly reported as the key performance metric in numerous studies on STD (5, 6, 13, 19–21, 23–27). In most studies, the solar irradiance was set to one sun for practical relevance (12, 13, 20, 24–26), although much higher solar irradiance has been used in some studies (5, 6, 19, 27)

SWP can be expressed as (see the Supplementary Materials for derivation)SWP=ELαηtGORSWP=ELαηtGOR(1)where E is the solar irradiance (kW m−2), L is the latent heat of evaporation (kWh liter−1), α is the solar absorptivity of the STD system (dimensionless) that quantifies the percentage of solar irradiance converted to heat, ηt is the thermal efficiency (dimensionless) that quantifies the percentage of generated heat used for evaporation, and GOR is the gained output ratio. GOR, defined as the kilogram of distilled water produced per kilogram of vapor produced, quantifies the degree to which the latent heat of condensation is reused for further distillation (28, 29). Because the thermal energy required to generate 1 kilogram of vapor is constant, GOR is a measure of energy efficiency of thermal distillation. The GOR of a well-designed thermal distillation system should be notably greater than unity

Recent Posts