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vacuum uv photolysis: topics by

In this study, ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photolysis were investigated for the pre-treatment and post-treatment of coking wastewater. First, 6-fold diluted raw coking wastewater was irradiated by UV and VUV. It was found that 15.9%-35.4% total organic carbon (TOC) was removed after 24 hr irradiation. The irradiated effluent could be degraded by the acclimated activated sludge. Even though the VUV photolysis removed more chemical oxygen demand (COD) than UV, the UV-irradiated effluent demonstrated better biodegradability. After 4 hr UV irradiation, the biological oxygen demand BOD5/COD ratio of irradiated coking wastewater increased from 0.163 to 0.224, and its toxicity decreased to the greatest extent. Second, the biologically treated coking wastewater was irradiated by UV and VUV. Both of them were able to remove 37%-47% TOC within 8 hr irradiation. Compared to UV, VUV photolysis could significantly improve the transparency of the bio-treated effluent. VUV also reduced 7% more ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N), 17% more nitrite nitrogen (NO2--N), and 18% more total nitrogen (TN) than UV, producing 35% less nitrite nitrogen (NO3--N) as a result. In conclusion, UV irradiation was better in improving the biodegradability of coking wastewater, while VUV was more effective at photolyzing the residual organic compounds and inorganic N-species in the bio-treated effluent. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V

A bacterial strain isolated from activated sludge and identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens could biodegrade phenol, but 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) inhibited phenol biodegradation and biomass growth. UV photolysis converted TCP into dichlorocatechol, monochlorophenol, and dichlorophenol, and this relieved inhibition by TCP. Phenol-removal and biomass-growth rates were significantly accelerated after UV photolysis: the monod maximum specific growth rate (μ(max)) increased by 9% after TCP photolysis, and the half-maximum-rate concentration (K(S)) decreased by 36%. Thus, the major benefit of UV photolysis in this case was to transform TCP into a set of much-less-inhibitory products

Sulfadiazine (SD), one of broad-spectrum antibiotics, exhibits limited biodegradation in wastewater treatment due to its chemical structure, which requires initial mono-oxygenation reactions to initiate its biodegradation. Intimately coupling UV photolysis with biodegradation, realized with the internal loop photobiodegradation reactor, accelerated SD biodegradation and mineralization by 35 and 71 %, respectively. The main organic products from photolysis were 2-aminopyrimidine (2-AP), p-aminobenzenesulfonic acid (ABS), and aniline (An), and an SD-photolysis pathway could be identified using C, N, and S balances. Adding An or ABS (but not 2-AP) into the SD solution during biodegradation experiments (no UV photolysis) gave SD removal and mineralization rates similar to intimately coupled photolysis and biodegradation. An SD biodegradation pathway, based on a diverse set of the experimental results, explains how the mineralization of ABS and An (but not 2-AP) provided internal electron carriers that accelerated the initial mono-oxygenation reactions of SD biodegradation. Thus, multiple lines of evidence support that the mechanism by which intimately coupled photolysis and biodegradation accelerated SD removal and mineralization was through producing co-substrates whose oxidation produced electron equivalents that stimulated the initial mono-oxygenation reactions for SD biodegradation

vacuum uv photolysis: topics by

Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) is a widely used polymer in the bottling, packaging, and clothing industry. In recent years an increasing global demand for PET has taken place due to the Solar Disinfection (SODIS) process. SODIS is a method of sterilizing fresh water into drinkable water. The PET bottles are used in the process to contain the water during solar irradiation due to its highly transparent optical property. Alongside PET, polyethylene 2,6-napthalate (PEN) is used in bottling and flexible electronic applications. The surface of PEN would need to be modified to control the hydrophilicity and the interaction it exudes as a substrate. The UV light absorption properties of PET and PEN are of great importance for many applications, and thus needs to be studied along with its photochemical resistance. The optical and chemical nature of PET was studied as it was treated by UV photo-oxidation, photo-ozonation, and photolysis under atmospheric pressure. Another investigation was also used to study PEN and PET as they are treated by vacuum UV (VUV) photo-oxidation, VUV photolysis, and remote oxygen reactions. The extent of the photoreactions' effect into the depth of the polymers is examined as treatment conditions are changed. The different experimental methods established the rate of several competing photoreactions on PET and PEN during irradiance, and their effect on the optical quality of the polymers

The photodegradation of ibuprofen (IBP) in aqueous media was studied in this paper. The degradation mechanism, the reaction kinetics and toxicity of the photolysis products of IBP under UV-Vis irradiation were investigated by dissolved oxygen experiments, quenching experiments of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and toxicity evaluation utilizing Vibrio fischeri. The results demonstrated that the IBP degradation process could be fitted by the pseudo first-order kinetics model. The degradation of IBP by UV-Vis irradiation included direct photolysis and self-sensitization via ROS. The presence of dissolved oxygen inhibited the photodegradation of IBP, which indicated that direct photolysis was more rapid than the self-sensitization. The contribution rates of ·OH and (1)O2 were 21.8 % and 38.6 % in self-sensitization, respectively. Ibuprofen generated a number of intermediate products that were more toxic than the base compound during photodegradation

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