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basic steps of ore dressing group gold

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gold rush: 1848–1860: mining techniques | picture this

The Gold Rush brought many people from all over the globe to the newly American land of California. While most of the Americans who came were Eastern farmers hoping to strike it rich quickly and return home to their families, many foreigners came with previous mining experience. These men (they were mostly men) were needed to educate the ignorant in the ways of mining. Chileans and Mexicans had experience and taught many whites. Chinese miners demonstrated the value of persistence. They did not bring new techniques but they determinedly worked sites previous abandoned by white miners and found new riches through sheer effort. Of course, all these mine sites were not on empty land, but in places occupied by Native Americans. The early miners' lack of experience proved detrimental for Native Americans, as they overran more and more land in search of gold. The California Gold Rush was a multicultural place and without the knowledge of people who knew how to mine, it may have ended much earlier

The mining techniques used in the Gold Rush evolved over time. This evolution tells a much more complex story than it seems at first glance; the change in mining techniques reveals the myth of the Gold Rush. In legend, the Gold Rush was where a poor farmer from New York or Pennsylvania could go, "strike it rich", and return home a wealthy man. Of course, this rarely happened and most men returned home with less than they had when they began their journey. However, as mining techniques changed, even this possibility was lost. The change in mining techniques is really the story of the evolution of the Gold Rush from an individual to a corporate phenomenon

A few years after 1849, when hydraulic jets were the main mode of mining, an individual could no longer go to California to "strike it rich." Large corporations essentially ruled the Gold Rush and literally had the power to move mountains - or at least blast water into them and alter their contours. Mining itself changed. No longer was it a risk, a hope, a chance to get rich quick. Mining became just another job, and miners were paid labor. Some corporations made money while others did not, but the risk and reward was now in the clean hands of wealthy businessmen, not in the dirty hands of lone miners who relied on skill, effort, and luck to make a fortune

gold rush: 1848–1860: mining techniques | picture this

extraction of iron from its ores, iron dressing, reduction

Iron is the most important metal in heavy industries, Iron is the fourth most abundant element in earth’s crust after oxygen, silicon and aluminum as it forms (5.1 %) of the mass of the earth’s crust and this mass increases gradually as we come close to the center of earth, Iron occurs only in the form of pure metal (90%) in meteorites

Iron ( 26Fe: (18Ar), 4S2, 3d6 ) is found in the earth’s crust in the form of natural ores which contains different iron oxides mixed with impurities such as Silica (SiO2), (Al2O3), CaO, and MgO, and some harmful impurities such as s, p and As, The suitability of the ore in the extraction of iron economically depends on three factors which are:

The ore is Hematite, chemical name is iron III oxide, the chemical formula is Fe3O4, It has a blood red colour, it is more easily reduced, Iron is from 50-60 %, place of deposits is Oasis area (western desert) and western part of Aswan

extraction of iron from its ores, iron dressing, reduction

The ore is Limonite, chemical name is Hydrated iron III oxide, the chemical formula is 2Fe2O3.3H2O, It has a yellow hydrated oxide & it is easily reduced, Iron is from 20-60 %, place of deposits is Oasis area

Magnetite is a compound behaves as a mixture of two oxides: FeO (iron II oxide, the oxidation number of iron = +2), Fe2O3 (iron III oxide, the oxidation number of iron = +3), so, the oxidation number of Fe in Fe3O4 is (+2, +3), Magnetic iron oxide is a mixed oxide because when it reacts with conc. acids, two types of salts are produced.

Extraction of iron or its metallurgy is the process of obtaining this metal in a form where it can be put to practical use, and this process of extraction consists of three stages: Ore dressing, Reduction of ores and Iron production

extraction of iron from its ores, iron dressing, reduction

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