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gold in small percentage is mined

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processing, smelting and refining gold | world gold council

More gold is recovered by cyanidation than by any other process. In cyanidation, metallic gold is oxidised and dissolved in an alkaline cyanide solution. When gold dissolution is complete, the gold-bearing solution is separated from the solids

With ores of higher gold content (greater than 20 grams of gold per tonne of ore), cyanidation is accomplished by vat leaching, which involves holding a slurry of ore and solvent in large tanks equipped with agitators

For extracting gold from low-grade ores, heap leaching is practiced; huge heaps are sprayed with a dilute solution of sodium cyanide, and this percolates down through the piled ore, dissolving the gold

processing, smelting and refining gold | world gold council

The Miller process uses gaseous chlorine to extract impurities when gold is at melting point; impurities separate into a layer on the surface of the molten purified gold. The Miller process is rapid and simple, but it produces gold of only about 99.5 percent purity. 

The Wohlwill process increases purity to about 99.99 percent by electrolysis. In this process, a casting of impure gold is lowered into an electrolyte solution of hydrochloric acid and gold chloride. Under the influence of an electric current, the gold migrates to a negatively charged electrode (cathode), where it is restored to a highly pure metallic state, leaving the impurities as a separate solution or residue

uses of gold in industry, medicine, computers, electronics

Of all the minerals mined from the Earth, none is more useful than gold. Its usefulness is derived from a diversity of special properties. Gold conducts electricity, does not tarnish, is very easy to work, can be drawn into wire, can be hammered into thin sheets, alloys with many other metals, can be melted and cast into highly detailed shapes, has a wonderful color and a brilliant luster. Gold is a memorable metal that occupies a special place in the human mind

Uses of Gold in the United States: This pie chart shows how gold was used in the United States in 2019, not including gold bullion. The main uses were in jewelry (50%) and electronics (37%). The minting of official coins accounted for 8% of the gold used, and 5% was for other uses. Data from the USGS Mineral Commodity Summaries for 2019

When Spanish explorers first arrived in the "New World" they met the native people of South America. These two cultures had been separated by a vast ocean, they had never touched one another, they spoke different languages and lived entirely different lives. Yet they had one thing in common - they both held gold in highest esteem and used it to make some of their most important objects

Throughout the history of our planet, almost every established culture has used gold to symbolize power, beauty, purity, and accomplishment. Today we continue to use gold for our most significant objects: wedding rings, Olympic medals, Oscars, Grammys, money, crucifixes and ecclesiastical art. No other substance of the same rarity holds a more visible and prominent place in our society

uses of gold in industry, medicine, computers, electronics

Colors of gold-silver-copper alloys: Different metal colors that can be produced by alloying different amounts of gold, silver, and copper. Image by Metallos, used here under a GNU Free Documentation License

Gold has been used to make ornamental objects and jewelry for thousands of years. Gold nuggets found in a stream are very easy to work and were probably one of the first metals used by humans. Today, most of the gold that is newly mined or recycled is used in the manufacture of jewelry. About 78% of the gold consumed each year is used in the manufacture of jewelry

when will gold run out? global reserve supply facts and

With gold having been in use since the dawn of history and new mining still occurring, it may seem strange to think of a day when there is no more gold to be extracted from the ground. Nevertheless, like any other limited natural resource, there is a finite supply of gold in the world

The largest single source of gold in history has been the Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa. This geologic formation is believed to be the result of an ancient meteorite and has produced over 1.5 billion troy ounces of gold since it was discovered in 1886. Witwatersrand accounts for roughly 50 percent of the gold ever mined. The formation, however, has seen declining production since the 1970s. Recently, the total gold output of South Africa, almost all of which comes from Witwatersrand, has dropped below 170 tons per year

Other major sources of gold include the extremely deep Mponeng mine in China, the Super Pit and Newmont Boddington mines in Australia, Indonesia’s Grasberg Mine, and the mines along the Carlin Unconformity in Nevada, USA. Canada, Russia, and Peru are also major producers of gold

Between all of the gold sources in the world, current estimates suggest that roughly 2,500 to 3,000 tons of new gold is mined each year. At present, experts believe that the total amount of above ground gold in the world stands at just over 190,000 tons

when will gold run out? global reserve supply facts and

Over the past two decades, new gold discoveries have slowed down considerably. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, discoveries of new veins with estimated deposits of 10 million troy ounces or more were quite common

Though new gold veins are still being found, discoveries of large deposits are becoming increasingly rare. As a result, most gold production today is coming from older mines that have already been exploited for decades. In part, this is due to decreasing investment in discovery on the part of mining companies, though a larger factor is the fact that there may not be many large, undiscovered veins left in the world

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